The global transition towards renewables is underway, driven largely by support from governments, improving economics and significant advancements in renewable energy technology – the very means with which we sustainably harness the earth’s natural resources to power consumers.
This means that many types of sustainable energy are more cost competitive and more available than ever before. But how do renewable energy technologies work? Below, we offer a brief overview of some of the common technologies that generate the electricity powering homes.
There are currently two main kinds of solar technology: solar thermal, which concentrates and converts the sun’s rays into heat by using a series of reflective collectors, as well as solar photovoltaic, which converts sunlight directly into electricity by using a panel of interconnected cells joined together to form a circuit – often made with monocrystalline cells, polycrystalline cells or thin film.
风turbines capture wind energy by lifting and turning large blades. Most turbines have two or three. These blades are connected to a rotor which is also connected to a main shaft. When rotated, the shaft (which is connected to a gear box) spins a generator to create electricity.5.
水电（或水电）由移动水的力或能量产生。类似于风力，流动的水通过连接到轴和发电机的转动叶片引导。7.While smaller power stations generally rely on naturally flowing water sources, larger stations need dams to store the water required to produce power – many of which are built to hold irrigation or drinking water, ensuring as much value from the resource is extracted as possible.8.
生物量(or bioenergy) is a fuel developed from organic materials, such as sugar cane residue, forest debris, crops and manure.9.生物质中的能量可以转化为电力，热量或生物燃料;然而，用于从生物质中提取能量的方法可以根据所用材料而变化。10.
一些实例包括常规燃烧，这是用于将生物质转换为热量的最简单和最广泛的技术，以及气化 - 一种有效的过程，涉及将固体加热到气体中的非常高的温度，以将部分烧焦的材料转化为合成气和厌氧消化，这是生物质的无氧条件（例如，泥炭沼泽和其他人造环境，例如垃圾填埋场或目的内置的泻湖）的生物学分解。11.
Sourcing energy from hot rocks generally relies on techniques employed by the oil and gas industries – for example, drilling wells beneath earth’s surface and pumping water through them.13.Water is then heated and pushed back to the surface, where it is used to drive a turbine and generator to produce electricity – only to be recycled and begin the process all over again.14.